Surgical Terminology : Eye

Blepharotomy :- An operation designed to release one or more eyelid layers (lamella) for diagnostic therapeutic purposes.

Blepharoptosis :-  An abnormal, low-lying upper eyelid margin. Drooping eyelids may occur on both sides (bilateral) or on one side only (unilateral)

Canthotomy :- Canthotomy is simple division of the outer canthus without stitching the conjunctiva into the wound.

Chemocauterization :- Destruction of tissue by application of a chemical substance.

Chemodenervation :- Chemodenervation is a term frequently used to describe the use of Botulinum Toxin to treat various forms of neurological conditions. Botulinum Toxin is a natural bacteria produced protein neurotoxin called “Clostirium Botulinum.”

Closure of Lacrimal Punctum by plug :- A punctal plug, also known as tear duct plug or lacrimal plug, is a small medical device that is inserted into the tear duct (puncta) of an eye to block the duct. This prevents the drainage of liquid from the eye. They are used to treat dry eye. Artificial tears are usually still required after punctal plug insertion.

Corneal Wedge Rescetion :- A very concerted effort is made to make the cornea as spherical as possible at the time of surgery. Additional adjustments of the suture can be performed in the office as well.

However, when the suture is removed in approximately 18 months, the release of suture tension and the dynamic forces of healing may cause ovalization (astigmatism) of the corneal graft. Also, in time the graft may become increasingly astigmatic depending on the underlying pathology. Should considerable astigmatism develop (below) as shown through the operating microscope, the projection of a circular array of dots  will now appear as an oval array.

A corneal wedge resection can be used to correct this condition.

Cryotherapy :-  Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant tissue damage. Liquid nitrogen or Argon gas is passed through the cryoprobe.

Enucleation :- Enucleation refers to the surgical removal of a mass without cutting into or dissecting it.

Epikeratoplasty :- The lenticule is sutured onto the cornea after removal of the epithelium. The edge of the lenticule is placed into a shallow lamellar dissection and tucked under the peripheral cornea.

Evisceration :- Evisceration is the removal of viscera (internal organs, especially those in the abdominal cavity).

Exenteration of Orbit :- A surgical technique in which the orbital content—eye, adnexa and part of the bony orbit—is removed, to manage large orbital tumours or orbital extension of intraocular tumours.

Extracapsular :- Removal of the lens, together with the anterior lens capsule, but sparing the posterior capsule.

Fistulization :- Surgical production of an artificial channel.

Goniotomy :- Goniotomy is a surgical procedure in which the doctor uses a lens called a goniolens to see the structures of the front part of the eye (anterior chamber).

An opening is made in the trabecular meshwork, the group of tiny canals located in the drainage angle, where fluid leaves the eye. The new opening provides a way for fluid to flow out of the eye.

Goniotomy is a surgery for children only.

Intracapsular :- a flexible structure around an organ, joint, or other body structure

Intavitreal drug delivery system :- Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance is delivered into the eye. Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye

Iridectomy :- A surgical procedure to remove part of the iris.

Iridotomy :-  Laser iridotomy uses a very focused beam of light to create a hole on the outer edge, or rim, of the iris, the colored part of the eye. This opening allows fluid (aqueous humor) to flow between the anterior chamber, the front part of the eye, and the area behind the iris, the posterior chamber.

Keratectomy :- An operation making a partial thickness incision into the cornea to flatten it and reduce its refractive power in that meridian.

Keratomileusis :-   A surgical procedure for correcting the refractive power of the eye to improve vision that formerly involved removing, freezing, reshaping, and reinserting a section of the cornea but now typically involves reshaping the cornea in place with the use of an excimer laser.

Keratophakia :- Keratoplasty in which corneal tissue from a donor is frozen, shaped, and inserted into the cornea of a recipient.

Keratoplasty :- Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue.

Keratoprosthesis :-  A keratoprosthesis, consisting of a central optic held in a cylindrical frame, is an artificial cornea that is intended to restore vision to patients with severe bilateral corneal disease (such as prior failed corneal transplants, chemical injuries, or certain immunological conditions) for whom a corneal transplant is not an option.

Phacofragmentation :- Rupture and aspiration of the lens.

Photocoagulation :- The coagulation of tissue using a laser which produces light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by haemoglobin, the pigment in red blood cells, in order to seal off bleeding blood vessels.

Probing of Nasolacrimal Duct :- Probing and irrigation is a procedure used to assess the anatomy and functional status of the lacrimal drainage system. This procedure can help assess the integrity of the system and look for the presence of canalicular injury. It is also very useful in cases of epiphora, which is defined as overflow tearing due either to primary or secondary overproduction of tears or to inadequacy of the lacrimal drainage system.

Radial Keratotomy :-  An eye surgery procedure designed to flatten the cornea, reducing its optical power, to correct nearsightedness (myopia). In the procedure, incisions are made in the cornea. The procedure is said to be radial because the incisions resemble the spokes in a bicycle wheel.

Repair of Retinal Detachment :- Retinal detachment repair is pneumatic retinopexy. In this procedure, a gas bubble is injected into the eye. The bubble presses against the detached retina and pushes it back into place. A laser or cryotherapy is then used to reattach the retina firmly into place.

Strabismus Surgery :- In Strabismus surgery, one or more of the eye muscles are strengthened, weakened or moved to a different position to improve alignment. Strabismus surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and does not require an overnight hospital stay.

Synechiae :- A synechia is an eye condition where the iris adheres to either the cornea (i.e. anterior synechia) or lens (i.e. posterior synechia). Synechiae can be caused by ocular trauma, iritis or iridocyclitis and may lead to certain types of glaucoma. Posterior synechia also cause glaucoma, but with a different mechanism.

Tarsorrhaphy :- Tarsorrhaphy is a surgical procedure in which the eyelids are partially sewn together to narrow the eyelid opening. It may be done to protect the cornea in cases of corneal exposure, as a treatment for Graves’ ophthalmopathy, Mobius syndrome or after corneal graft surgery.

Thermocauterization :-  Cautery by the application of heat.

Trabeculotomy :- A surgical procedure aimed at lowering intraocular pressure by unblocking the entry of Schlemm’s canal to ease the outflow of aqueous humour. This procedure is used principally in congenital glaucoma especially when goniotomy has failed.

Trabeculoplasty :- A trabeculoplasty is a modification of the trabecular meshwork. Laser trabeculoplasty (LTP) is the application of a laser beam to burn areas of the trabecular meshwork, located near the base of the iris, to increase fluid outflow.

Transposition Procedure :-  A surgical procedure used to correct muscle paralysis. In this procedure, adjacent muscles are transferred(transposed) to the paralysed muscle, allowing for partial movement in the field of action of the pare tic muscle. There are various procedures: one in which parts of the rec-ti muscles are sutured together to correct lateral rectus palsy and improve abduction.

Trephination :- Trepanning, also known as trepanation, making a burr hole is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases.

Trichasis :- Trichiasis is a common eyelid abnormality in which the eyelashes are misdirected and grow inwards toward the eye.

Vitrectomy  :- The surgical operation of removing the vitreous humour from the eyeball.







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