Endoscopy: Introduction, Risk, Uses & Type

Endoscopy is the insertion of a long, thin tube directly into the body to observe an internal organ or tissue in detail. It can also be used to carry out other tasks including imaging and minor surgery.

Image result for list of endoscopy procedures

A surgeon inserts an endoscope through a small cut, or an opening in the body such as the mouth. An endoscope is a flexible tube with an attached camera that allows the doctor to observe and can use forceps (tongs) and scissors on the endoscope to operate or remove tissue for biopsy.

There are the different type of endoscope. The length and flexibility of endoscope is totally depend on body parts.

When do we need an Endoscope?

An endoscopy to visually examine an organ. An endoscope’s lighted camera allows the doctor to view potential problems without a large incision.

Image result for hand sign oneInvestigation: if a patient is experiencing vomiting, abdominal pain, breathing disorders, stomach ulcers, difficulty swallowing or gastrointestinal bleeding, an endoscope can be utilized in the search for a cause

Image result for hand sign oneConfirmation: endoscopy can be used to complete biopsies (removal of a small section of tissue) to confirm a diagnosis of cancer or other diseases

Image result for hand sign three fingersTreatment: an endoscope can be used to treat an illness directly; for instance, endoscopy can be used to cauterised a bleeding vessel or remove a polyp.

  • Surgery through small incision in the skin, called Laparoscopy Surgery.
  • laser therapy using powerful beam of light to destroy cancer cell.
  • Microwave ablation, using heat to destroy cancerous tissue.
  • Surgery using an endoscope inserted into gastrointestinal tract, called endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • Photodynamic therapy destroying the tumor with a laser after injecting it with a light-sensitive substance.

Part of an Endoscopes

An endoscope consists of the following components:Image result for endoscope parts

  • Tube: Its depend on body parts either rigid or flexible.
  • Light: The light source is normally outside of the body and directs light internally via an optical fibre system.
  • Lens system: Its designed to transmit the image from the internal end of the endoscope to the viewer. In rigid endoscopes, this is achieved by relay lenses; for flexible scopes, optic fibers are used.
  • Eyepiece:  Endoscopes might be replaced by a display screen.
  • Additional channel: This allows for medical instruments or manipulators to be passed through the endoscope into the body.


Endoscopy has a much lower risk of bleeding and infection than open surgery. Still, endoscopy is a medical procedure and other rare complications such as:

  • Chest pain
  • Damage to organs, including possible perforation
  • Fever
  • Persistent pain in the area of endoscopy
  • Redness and swelling at the incision site

If any of the following symptoms occur following an endoscopy indicates something went wrong;

  • Dark colored stool
  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe and persistent abdominal pain
  • Chest pain
  • Vomiting blood



  • Tool: Arthroscope
  • Organ: Joint
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through small incision over targeted area.


  • Tool: Bronchoscope
  • Organ: trachea and bronchi of lung
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through mouth.


  • Tool: Colonoscope
  • Organ: Entire length of colon and large intestine.
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through anus.


  • Tool: Colposcope
  • Organ: Vagina and Cervix
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted a speculum into vagina and opens it slightly so he or she can see cervix.


  • Tool: Cystoscope
  • Organ: Urethra and Bladder
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through urethra and into bladder.


  • Tool: Enteroscope
  • Organ: Small intestine
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through mouth.


  • Tool: Esophagoscope
  • Organ : Stomach and portion of  small intestine
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through the mouth or, more rarely, through the nares and into the esophagus.


  • Tool: Hysteroscope
  • Organ: Uterus
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus.


  • Tool: Gastroscope
  • Organ: Esophagus (gullet), stomach and first part of the small intestine (duodenum).
  • Path for targeted area: Insertedthrough the mouth.


  • Tool: Laparoscope
  • Organ: Abdomen
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen or permit small-scale surgery.


  • Tool: Laryngoscope
  • Organ: Back of throat, voice box (larynx) , and vocal cords
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through the nose and guided to the vocal cords, or larynx.


  • Tool: Mediastinoscope
  • Organ: Mediastinum
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through neck just above the breastbone or on the left side of the chest next to the breastbone.


  • Tool: Neuroendoscope
  • Organ: Brain
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through moutn or nose into skull for removing tumor.


  • Tool: Proctoscope
  • Organ: Anal cavity, rectum, or sigmoid colon.
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through the anus.


  • Tool: Sigmoidoscope
  • Organ: Rectum and the lower (sigmoid) colon
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted gently into the anus and advanced slowly into the rectum and the lower colon.


  • Tool: Thoracoscope
  • Organ:  Lungs, mediastinum (the area between the lungs), and pleura (the membrane covering the lungs and lining the chest cavity).
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through a small incision in the chest.

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

  • Tool:  Endoscope
  • Organ: Esophagus , your stomach, and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum )
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through your mouth and then gently moved down your throat into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (upper gastrointestinal tract).


  • Tool: Ureteroscope
  • Organ: Upper urinary tract
  • Path for targeted area: Inserted through the urethra and the bladder, and then directly into the ureter; usually the lower 2/3 of the ureter is accessible by this procedure.

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