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Integumentary System

This Chapter contain :

 Anatomy & Physiology

 Related Diagnosis Description

 Surgical Procedure Description

             Basic Anatomy of skin

(dermat(o), derm(o) Deal with Skin)

LAYERS OF THE SKIN

Epidermal Sub-layers

  1. stratum corneum – top layer of dead, extremely flat cells. Cell nuclei are not visible.
  2. stratum lucidum – thin, flattened layer of dead cells. Not visible in thin skin.
  3. stratum granulosum – rectangular-shaped cells that become increasingly flattened as they move to the surface of the epidermis.
  4. stratum spinosum – polyhedral-shaped cells that flatten as they get closer to the stratum granulosum.
  5. stratum basal – innermost layer of elongated columnar (column-shaped) cells. Consists of basal cells that produce new skin cells.

Dermis Skin Layer

Components of the dermis include:

Hypodermis Skin Layers

The innermost layer of the skin is the hypodermis or subcutis. Composed of fat and loose connective tissue.

        Basic Anatomy of Nail

Onych (o) Stands for Nail

Interesting facts about nails

Nail plate

Hyponychium

Paronychium

The paronychium contributes to the stability of the nail and its adherence to the fingertip, and is located where the skin of the finger comes into contact with where the nail curves into the finger.

  Basic Anatomy of Breast

Masto Stands for Breast

The breast is the tissue overlying the chest (pectoral) muscles. Women’s breasts are made of specialised tissue that produces milk (glandular tissue) as well as fatty tissue. The amount of fat determines the size of the breast.

Adipose Tissue

The female breast is mostly made up of a collection of fat cells called adipose tissue. This tissue extends from the collarbone down to the underarm and across to the middle of the rib cage.

Lobes, Lobules, And Milk Ducts

A healthy female breast is made up of 12–20 sections called lobes. Each of these lobes is made up of many smaller lobules, the gland that produces milk in nursing women. Both the lobes and lobules are connected by milk ducts, which act as stems or tubes to carry the milk to the nipple. These breast structures are generally where the cancer begins to form.

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